Data processing refers to methods that take the raw data and turn it into usable information. Paper and pencil can work, but in the 21st century, data analysis usually relies on computers.
What is Data Processing Data processing is simply the conversion of raw data to meaningful information through a process. Data is manipulated to produce results that lead to a resolution of a problem or improvement of an existing situation. Similar to a production process, it follows a cycle where inputs raw data are fed to a process computer systems, software, etc.
Generally, organizations employ computer systems to carry out a series of operations on the data to present, interpret, or obtain information. The process includes activities like data entry, summary, calculation, storage, etc.
A useful and informative output is presented in various appropriate forms such as diagrams, reports, graphics, etc. Need of data processing Data processing is important in business and scientific operations. Business data is repeatedly processed, and usually needs large volumes of output.
Scientific data requires numerous computations and usually needs fast-generating outputs. Data processing methods and data processing techniques 1.
In manual data processing, all the calculations and logical operations are performed manually on the data. Similarly, data is transferred manually from one place to another. This method of data processing is very slow, and errors may occur in the output. In an educational institute, for example, marks sheets, fee receipts, and other financial calculations or transactions are performed by hand.
This method is avoided as far as possible because of the very high probability of error, labor intensive and very time-consuming.
This type of data processing forms the very primitive stage when technology was not available, or it was not affordable. With the advancement of technology, the dependency on manual methods has drastically decreased.
This method of data processing is faster and more accurate than manual data processing. These are faster than the manual mode but still forms the early stages of data processing. With invention and evolution of more complex machines with better computing power this type of processing also started fading away.
Examination boards and printing press use mechanical data processing devices frequently. The data is processed through a computer; Data and set of instructions are given to the computer as input, and the computer automatically processes the data according to the given set of instructions.
The computer is also known as electronic data processing machine. This method of processing data is very fast and accurate. For example, in a computerized education environment results of students are prepared through a computer; in banks, accounts of customers are maintained or processed through computers, etc.
Methods of Data Processing by electronic means — 1.
Batch Processing Batch Processing is a method where the information to be organized is sorted into groups to allow for efficient and sequential processing. Online Processing is a method that utilizes Internet connections and equipment directly attached to a computer.
It is used mainly for information recording and research.Data Processing Cycle. The Data Processing Cycle is a series of steps carried out to extract information from raw data.
Although each step must be taken in order, the order is cyclic. The output and storage stage can lead to the repeat of the data collection stage, resulting in another cycle of data processing. Commercial data processing involves a large volume of input data, relatively few computational operations, and a large volume of output.
For example, an insurance company needs to keep records on tens or hundreds of thousands of policies, print and mail bills, and receive and post payments. Data-processing cycle refers to the process of transforming raw data into useful information.
The cycle entails a process of sequential steps, including input, processing, output and interpretation. Preparation, feedback and storage often are included steps of the cycle.
Modern data processing. Data processing is an intermediary stage of work between data collection and data analysis. The completed instruments of data collection, viz., interview schedules/ questionnaires/ data sheets/field notes contain.
a vast mass of data.
Sales data, Wages, Invoices, and Purchasing are the four most common processing methods. They are two types of ways which data can be processed, Firstly . DATA PROCESSING – THE CYCLE, SYSTEMS AND TYPES OF PROCESSING Expanded Data Processing Cycle - More steps; Origination, Distribution, and Storage.
Origination: refers to the processes of collecting the original data into source documents. E.g. graded test papers.