The Umayyads invaded Northern Africa and spread Islam further. Harsha's rule Harsha was a king in India in the early 's C.
During the Early Enlightenment ca. During the Late Enlightenment ca. Louis' reign was characterized by extensive patronage of the arts, ruthless persecution of the Huguenots which virtually ended Protestantism in Franceand constant wars of attempted expansion.
This conflict resulted from the extinction of the Habsburg dynasty in Spain, which caused Louis' grandson Philip to inherit the Spanish throne; left unchecked, this would eventually have led to the union of France and Spain under a single monarch.
The anti-French coalition averted this danger by attacking and defeating both nations; in the resulting peace settlement, France and Spain were forbidden from ever uniting, and both were stripped of significant territories.
Fighting took place both in Europe itself and throughout the world, between the European empires. Indeed, the Seven Years' War is often cited as the first global conflict.
At the core of this conflict was the British-French struggle for world supremacy. The Enlightenment period witnessed a string of wars between these nations over control of India, North America, and the Caribbean.
More often than not, Britain claimed victory in these wars, such that French territory was slowly eroded.
By imposing new taxes on colonies due to massive war debtshowever, Britain spurred the American Revolution, which France was only too eager to support. Russian territory expanded steadily throughout the Early Modern period, especially eastward.
Ivan the Great was succeeded by Ivan the Terrible, the first Russian ruler to be titled tsar.
Soon after, the Romanov dynasty came to power, remaining there until the position of tsar was terminated during WWI. He established Russian naval power by founding St Petersburg on the Baltic coast, which served as the nation's capital until World War I.
Poland conquered the region soon afterward, but allowed the Knights to keep part of it as a duchy. During the Reformation, this duchy was inherited by the prince of Brandenburg one of the small German states under the Holy Roman Empire ; during the Enlightenment, Prussia broke free as an independent kingdom and expanded rapidly, joining up with Brandenburg to form a single great power.
French Revolution The Enlightenment concluded with the French Revolutioneffected by the French peasantry and middle class in response to heavy regressive taxation.
Escalating civil unrest forced Louis XVI to summon the Estates-General in a desperate bid to implement satisfactory political reforms, including an acceptable system of taxation which was needed to manage the towering national debt. Unlike Parliament, the Estates-General had never attained significant political power, and so had remained chiefly advisory.
The Estates-General consisted of representatives from three groups: Though discussions ensued, the commoners lost patience and demanded control of the nation, dubbing themselves the National Assembly.
Before long, the king reluctantly acknowledged the National Assembly as the new government of France. This act is considered the beginning of the French Revolution.
Meanwhile, violence raged both within France against counter-revolutionaries and between rival revolutionary factions and against other European nations in the French Revolutionary Wars, through which France expanded eastward.
Though not declared "emperor" for some years, his rule was dictatorial from the start. The Revolution also bolstered a range of freedoms in French society, including freedom of speech and religion.
The ideals and reforms of the French Revolution proved widely influential, especially across Continental Europe. A 1 - "Europe", Encyclopedia Britannica.Analyze the changes and continuities in the Arabic world’s acceptance of ONE of the following items between and Be sure to discuss the causes of the changes as well as the reasons for the continuities.
Austin O'Connell 1st period Changes and Continuities of Western Europe Thesis Despite being behind the rest of the world in the 's, between Europe was in desperate need of intellectual, technological, and economical changes. Conclusion: Changes and Continuities in European Family Lives Another developing theoretical understanding of family in Europe that can be found in this book is represented by the configurational per-spective on families (Widmer ).
Whereas Practice Theory primarily. Changes & Continuities of Silk Road Essay Words | 3 Pages. has its own changes and continuities. Trade flourished between the Asian and Europe at the time and as time went on its sole purpose of trading expanded to many other purposes and affect not only the area it contacted.
2 This article discusses significant changes which the political and administrative structures of local government and the “local public sector” have experienced in Europe during the past.
Notwithstanding these dramatic changes, political power in Early Modern Europe remained concentrated in the hands of the upper class, composed primarily of nobility and clergy. A fundamental struggle emerged between the middle and upper class of each nation, often spurring attempted revolution.