A Brief History of Hypnosis A Brief History of Hypnosis The use of hypnosis, in its general sense, is found in virtually every culture across the world.
The mystic achieves hallucinations by gaining control of his own dissociative mechanisms; perhaps this is a form of self-hypnosis. Such individuals can accomplish an astonishing withdrawal from the environment by prolonged intense concentration e.
The hallucinations… The hypnotic state The hypnotized individual appears to heed only the communications of the hypnotist and typically responds in an uncritical, automatic fashion while ignoring all aspects of the environment other than those pointed out by the hypnotist.
History and early research The history of hypnosis is as ancient as that of sorcerymagicand medicine; indeed, hypnosis has been used as a method in all three. Its scientific history began in the latter part of the 18th century with Franz Mesmera German physician who used hypnosis in the treatment of patients in Vienna and Paris.
A number of clinicians made use of it without fully understanding its nature until the middle of the 19th century, when the English physician James Braid studied the phenomenon and coined the terms hypnotism and hypnosis, after the Greek god of sleep, Hypnos. Hypnosis attracted widespread scientific interest in the s.
Independently they had written that hypnosis involved no physical forces and no physiological processes but was a combination of psychologically mediated responses to suggestions. During a visit to France at about the same time, Austrian physician Sigmund Freud was impressed by the therapeutic potential of hypnosis for neurotic disorders.
On his return to Vienna, he used hypnosis to help neurotics recall disturbing events that they had apparently forgotten. As he began to develop his system of psychoanalysishowever, theoretical considerations—as well as the difficulty he encountered in hypnotizing some patients—led Freud to discard hypnosis in favour of free association.
Generally psychoanalysts have come to view hypnosis as merely an adjunct to the free-associative techniques used in psychoanalytic practice. Hypnosis subsequently acquired other limited uses in medicine.
Various researchers have put forth differing theories of what hypnosis is and how it might be understood, but there is still no generally accepted explanatory theory for the phenomenon. Applications of hypnosis The techniques used to induce hypnosis share common features.
The most important consideration is that the person to be hypnotized the subject be willing and cooperative and that he or she trust in the hypnotist.
Subjects are invited to relax in comfort and to fix their gaze on some object. The subject allows his eyes to close and then begins to show signs of profound relaxation, such as limpness and deep breathing.
He has entered the state of hypnotic trance. Therefore, induction is generally preceded by the establishment of suitable rapport between subject and hypnotist. Ordinary inductions of hypnosis begin with simple, noncontroversial suggestions made by the hypnotist that will almost inevitably be accepted by all subjects.
Other methods of induction may also be used. The process may take considerable time or only a few seconds. The resulting hypnotic phenomena differ markedly from one subject to another and from one trance to another, depending upon the purposes to be served and the depth of the trance.
Hypnosis is a phenomenon of degrees, ranging from light to profound trance states but with no fixed constancy. Ordinarily, however, all trance behaviour is characterized by a simplicity, a directness, and a literalness of understanding, action, and emotional response that are suggestive of childhood.
The surprising abilities displayed by some hypnotized persons seem to derive partly from the restriction of their attention to the task or situation at hand and their consequent freedom from the ordinary conscious tendency to orient constantly to distracting, even irrelevant, events.The effects of hypnosis are not limited to sensory change; even the subject's memory and awareness of self may be altered by suggestion, and the effects of the suggestions may be extended (posthypnotically) into the subject's subsequent waking activity.
History of hypnosis It appears that hypnosis, under other names, has been used since the beginning of time. In fact, it has been insinuated that the earliest description of hypnosis may be portrayed in the Old Testament and in the Talmud.
Hypnotism A peculiar altered state of consciousness distinguished by certain marked symptoms, the most prominent and invariable of which are the presence of continuous alpha waves on the electroencephalograph, hypersuggestibility in the subject, a concentration of attention on .
The use of hypnotism for therapeutic purposes is referred to as 'hypnotherapy', while its use as a form of entertainment for an audience is known as 'stage hypnosis'. History of hypnosis.
Jump to navigation Jump to search. Hypnosis; Applications. Hypnotherapy; Stage hypnosis Braid seized upon these accounts of Oriental meditation as proof that the effects of hypnotism could be produced in solitude, without the presence of a magnetiser, and therefore saw this as evidence that the real precursor of.
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By Kendra Cherry the effects have been dramatically exaggerated in popular media.